Explained 101: Comprehensive Guide to Inflation Indexed Bonds in India

Rahul Verma
November 29, 2023
Inflation Indexed Bonds Depiction
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Inflation Indexed Bonds (IIBs) were introduced in India in 1997 as a financial instrument designed to shield investors from the erosive effects of inflation. Issued by the government and backed by its full faith and credit, these bonds provide a hedge against inflation by adjusting both principal and interest payments.

Inflation is a constant concern for investors as it decreases the real value of money over time. The primary purpose of IIBs is to safeguard the purchasing power of investors’ capital by providing a reliable hedge against inflation.

Since their inception, these bonds have gained significant popularity among investors, particularly those seeking to preserve their wealth amidst inflationary pressures. The reliability of the government’s backing adds an additional layer of trust. Since India is an emerging market, and due to global supply shocks, Inflation levels are quite unpredictable in recent years, these bonds are a great option to hedge against inflationary pressures.

Defining Inflation Indexed Bonds

Inflation Indexed Bonds, as the name suggests, are debt securities whose face value is linked to an index, typically the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The unique feature of these bonds is their ability to adjust for both inflation and deflation, ensuring that investors’ returns are real and not eroded by changing economic conditions.

The real return on an IIB is calculated as the coupon rate minus the inflation rate. This guarantees that investors receive a consistent real value, factoring in the impact of inflation.

Features of Inflation Indexed Bonds

  1. Coupon Payment: The coupon payment structure of IIBs is designed to reimburse investors midyear, and it is based on the adjusted principal amount. This ensures that the returns account for changes in the inflation rate.
  2. Investment Limits: IIBs have specific limits to individual and institutional investments. For individual investors, the minimum investment is set at Rs 5000, with a maximum limit of Rs 10 lakh per year. Institutional investors face a cap of Rs 25 lakh per year.
  3. Economic Safeguard: One of the significant features of IIBs is their principal aim to safeguard the economy, particularly benefiting the poor and middle classes. This aligns with broader economic goals of inclusive growth and wealth preservation.
  4. Principal Indexing: The principal amount of IIBs is indexed to inflation. This means that as inflation rises, the principal value of the bond also increases. This indexing mechanism protects the real value of the investment against the impact of inflation.
  5. Interest Payment: The interest payments on IIBs are calculated using a formula that takes into account the current level of deficit finance. If the inflation rate is, for example, 3%, and the bond’s interest rate is 5%, the interest payment would be calculated as 5% of the current principal value plus 3% of the original principal value.
    Investment Channels
  6. Availability: Investors have multiple channels through which they can invest in IIBs. These include government websites, banks, and brokerages. The accessibility of these bonds ensures that a wide range of investors can participate and ensures there is sufficient liquidity for these instruments in the markets.
  7. Options in India: In India, Inflation Indexed National Saving Securities – Cumulative and Index Funds are common channels for purchasing IIBs. The government’s initiative to offer these bonds through various platforms facilitates easy access for investors

Why invest in IIBs and what to consider before investing?


    1. Inflation Protection: IIBs offer a robust shield against inflation, preserving the purchasing power of investors’ capital over time. This is a critical advantage, especially in economies where inflation rates can be unpredictable.
    2. Stability: Compared to other types of investments, IIBs tend to be less volatile. The reliable returns and the link to inflation provide a sense of stability for investors seeking to balance risk in their portfolios and diversify their investments. Including such bonds in your portfolio can also help you mitigate interest rate risks and help stabilise your returns during market downturns.
    3. Low-Interest Rates: While this might be considered a disadvantage in some contexts, the relatively lower interest rates on IIBs make them an attractive option for income investors. The consistency of returns is often prioritized over high interest rates.


    1. Lower Earning Potential: The interest rates on IIBs are calculated using the formula that takes into account the change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI), not the actual rate of inflation. This may result in lower yields compared to other securities which are positively correlated with the rise in inflation levels such as good company stocks and broad-market Index funds.
    2. Not a Perfect Measure of Inflation: The use of CPI as an indicator may not fully capture the true cost of living for individuals. As a result, the adjustment based on CPI may not be a perfect measure of the real impact of inflation on investors. CPI assumes a fixed basket of goods over time, which doesn’t account for consumers’ ability to substitute goods and services when prices change.
    3. Phantom Income: IIBs can create a scenario known as phantom income. This occurs when interest payments increase due to inflation, but the value of the bond does not keep pace. This can impact the real value of the interest payments for investors relying on them to cover living expenses. This can result in high tax liabilities for investors who may be compelled to declare their interest income because of the higher significance of the particular investment.


    In summary, Inflation Indexed Bonds represent a secure and government-backed investment option. Their ability to protect against the detrimental effects of inflation, coupled with a fixed rate of return, makes them an attractive choice for investors aiming to preserve their wealth.

    While the benefits of IIBs are substantial, investors should conduct thorough research and, if necessary, consult with financial advisors before investing. Understanding the risks, such as lower yields and potential market risks, is crucial for making informed investment decisions.

    The requirement for a Demat account to hold investments in an electronic format adds another layer of consideration. Ensuring the necessary infrastructure is in place contributes to a seamless and efficient investment experience.

    Investors looking to combat the impact of inflation on their portfolios should carefully weigh the pros and cons of Inflation Indexed Bonds. Despite their limitations, these bonds offer a valuable means of safeguarding investments against the erosive effects of inflation.


    1. What is the difference between nominal and Inflation Indexed Bonds?
      Nominal bonds provide a fixed interest rate, unaffected by inflation. In contrast, Inflation Indexed Bonds, like those in India, adjust both principal and interest payments to counter the impact of inflation. This ensures that investors’ returns maintain their real value over time.
    2. What is the difference between capital-indexed bonds and Inflation Indexed Bonds?
      Capital-indexed bonds and Inflation Indexed Bonds are terms often used interchangeably. Both refer to bonds whose principal value adjusts with inflation, providing a shield against its erosive effects. In the context of India, they essentially denote the same type of investment designed to combat inflationary pressures.
    3. IIBs are issued by which entity?
      In India, Inflation Indexed Bonds are issued by the government. The government’s full faith and credit back these bonds, make them a secure investment option for Indian investors. This aligns with the government’s objective to offer a reliable hedge against inflation.
    4. How to buy Inflation Indexed Bonds in India?
      Indian investors can purchase Inflation Indexed Bonds through various channels. These include government websites, banks, and brokerages. Notable options in India are Inflation Indexed National Saving Securities – Cumulative and Index Funds. These bonds are accessible, providing flexibility for investors to acquire them through their preferred platforms.
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